Table of Contents
Let’s login to our new machine and take some initial steps to secure our system. For this article I’m going to assume your username is
If you need to, setup your sudoers file by adding the following lines:
ubuntu ALL=(ALL:ALL) ALL # put this in the "User privilege specification" section
~/.ssh/authorized_keys and put your public key inside it. Make sure you can login without a password now once your key is in place.
/etc/ssh/sshd_config and make sure these lines exist to secure SSH:
# Only allow version 2 communications, version 1 has known vulnerabilities Protocol 2 # Disable root login over ssh PermitRootLogin no # Load authorized keys files from a users home directory AuthorizedKeysFile %h/.ssh/authorized_keys # Don't allow empty passwords to be used to authenticate PermitEmptyPasswords no # Disable password auth, you must use ssh keys PasswordAuthentication no
Keep your current session open and restart sshd:
sudo service ssh restart
Make sure you can login from another terminal. If you can, move on.
Now we need to update and upgrade to make sure all of our packages are up to date and install two pre-requisites for later in the article: build-essential and ntp.
sudo apt-get update sudo apt-get install build-essential ntp sudo apt-get upgrade sudo reboot
Setting up iptables and Fail2Ban
sudo apt-get install fail2ban
Open up the fail2ban config and change the ban time, destemail, and maxretry:
[DEFAULT] ignoreip = 127.0.0.1/8 bantime = 3600 maxretry = 2 destemail = email@example.com action = %(action_mw)s [ssh] enabled = true port = ssh filter = sshd logpath = /var/log/auth.log maxretry = 2
Now restart fail2ban.
sudo service fail2ban restart
If you try and login from another machine and fail, you should see the ip in iptables.
# sudo iptables -L Chain fail2ban-ssh (1 references) target prot opt source destination DROP all -- li203-XX.members.linode.com anywhere RETURN all -- anywhere anywhere
Here are my default iptables rules, it opens up port 80 and 443 for HTTP/HTTPS communication, and allows port 22. We also allow ping and then log all denied calls and then reject everything else. If you have other services you need to run, such as a game server or something else, you’ll have to add the rules to open up the ports in the iptables config.
*filter # Accepts all established inbound connections -A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED -j ACCEPT # Allows all outbound traffic # You could modify this to only allow certain traffic -A OUTPUT -j ACCEPT # Allows HTTP and HTTPS connections from anywhere (the normal ports for websites) -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 443 -j ACCEPT -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT # Allows SSH connections for script kiddies # THE -dport NUMBER IS THE SAME ONE YOU SET UP IN THE SSHD_CONFIG FILE -A INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW --dport 22 -j ACCEPT # Now you should read up on iptables rules and consider whether ssh access # for everyone is really desired. Most likely you will only allow access from certain IPs. # Allow ping -A INPUT -p icmp -m icmp --icmp-type 8 -j ACCEPT # log iptables denied calls (access via 'dmesg' command) -A INPUT -m limit --limit 5/min -j LOG --log-prefix "iptables denied: " --log-level 7 # Reject all other inbound - default deny unless explicitly allowed policy: -A INPUT -j REJECT -A FORWARD -j REJECT COMMIT
We can load that up into iptables:
sudo iptables-restore < /etc/iptables.up.rules
Make sure it loads on boot by putting it into the if-up scripts:
#!/bin/sh iptables-restore /etc/iptables.up.rules
Now make it executable:
chmod +x /etc/network/if-up.d/iptables
Rebooting here is optional, I usually reboot after major changes to make sure everything boots up properly.
If you’re getting hit by scanners or brute-force attacks, you’ll see a line similar to this in your
Jan 18 03:30:37 localhost kernel: [ 79.631680] iptables denied: IN=eth0 OUT= MAC=04:01:01:40:70:01:00:12:f2:c6:e8:00:08:00 SRC=126.96.36.199 DST=192.34.XX.XX LEN=64 TOS=0x00 PREC=0x00 TTL=34 ID=57021 DF PROTO=TCP SPT=1253 DPT=135 WINDOW=53760 RES=0x00 SYN URGP=0
Read only shared memory
A common exploit vector is going through shared memory (which can let you change the UID of running programs and other malicious actions). It can also be used as a place to drop files once an initial breakin has been made. An example of one such exploit is available here.
tmpfs /dev/shm tmpfs defaults,ro 0 0
Once you do this you need to reboot.
Setting up Bastille Linux
The Bastille Hardening program "locks down" an operating system, proactively configuring the system for increased security and decreasing its susceptibility to compromise. Bastille can also assess a system's current state of hardening, granularly reporting on each of the security settings with which it works.
sudo apt-get install bastille # choose Internet site for postfix # configure bastille sudo bastille
After you run that command you’ll be prompted to configure your system, here are the options I chose:
- File permissions module: Yes (suid)
- Disable SUID for mount/umount: Yes
- Disable SUID on ping: Yes
- Disable clear-text r-protocols that use IP-based authentication? Yes
- Enforce password aging? No (situation dependent, I have no users accessing my machines except me, and I only allow ssh keys)
- Default umask: Yes
- Umask: 077
- Disable root login on tty’s 1-6: No
- Password protect GRUB prompt: No (situation dependent, I’m on a VPS and would like to get support in case I need it)
- Password protect su mode: Yes
- default-deny on tcp-wrappers and xinetd? No
- Ensure telnet doesn’t run? Yes
- Ensure FTP does not run? Yes
- display authorized use message? No (situation dependent, if you had other users, Yes)
- Put limits on system resource usage? Yes
- Restrict console access to group of users? Yes (then choose root)
- Add additional logging? Yes
- Setup remote logging if you have a remote log host, I don’t so I answered No
- Setup process accounting? Yes
- Disable acpid? Yes
- Deactivate nfs + samba? Yes (situation dependent)
- Stop sendmail from running in daemon mode? No (I have this firewalled off, so I’m not concerned)
- Deactivate apache? Yes
- Disable printing? Yes
- TMPDIR/TMP scripts? No (if a multi-user system, yes)
- Packet filtering script? No (we configured the firewall previously)
- Finished? YES! & reboot
You can verify some of these changes by testing them out, for instance, the SUID change on ping:
ubuntu@app1:~$ ping google.com ping: icmp open socket: Operation not permitted ubuntu@app1:~$ sudo ping google.com PING google.com (188.8.131.52) 56(84) bytes of data. 64 bytes from iad23s07-in-f8.1e100.net (184.108.40.206): icmp_req=1 ttl=55 time=9.06 ms ^C --- google.com ping statistics --- 1 packets transmitted, 1 received, 0% packet loss, time 0ms rtt min/avg/max/mdev = 9.067/9.067/9.067/0.000 ms
Since our machine isn’t running as a router and is going to be running as an application/web server, there are additional steps we can take to secure the machine. Many of these are from the NSA’s security guide, which you can read in its entirety here.
# Protect ICMP attacks net.ipv4.icmp_echo_ignore_broadcasts = 1 # Turn on protection for bad icmp error messages net.ipv4.icmp_ignore_bogus_error_responses = 1 # Turn on syncookies for SYN flood attack protection net.ipv4.tcp_syncookies = 1 # Log suspcicious packets, such as spoofed, source-routed, and redirect net.ipv4.conf.all.log_martians = 1 net.ipv4.conf.default.log_martians = 1 # Disables these ipv4 features, not very legitimate uses net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_source_route = 0 net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_source_route = 0 # Enables RFC-reccomended source validation (dont use on a router) net.ipv4.conf.all.rp_filter = 1 net.ipv4.conf.default.rp_filter = 1 # Make sure no one can alter the routing tables net.ipv4.conf.all.accept_redirects = 0 net.ipv4.conf.default.accept_redirects = 0 net.ipv4.conf.all.secure_redirects = 0 net.ipv4.conf.default.secure_redirects = 0 # Host only (we're not a router) net.ipv4.ip_forward = 0 net.ipv4.conf.all.send_redirects = 0 net.ipv4.conf.default.send_redirects = 0 # Turn on execshild kernel.exec-shield = 1 kernel.randomize_va_space = 1 # Tune IPv6 net.ipv6.conf.default.router_solicitations = 0 net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra_rtr_pref = 0 net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra_pinfo = 0 net.ipv6.conf.default.accept_ra_defrtr = 0 net.ipv6.conf.default.autoconf = 0 net.ipv6.conf.default.dad_transmits = 0 net.ipv6.conf.default.max_addresses = 1 # Optimization for port usefor LBs # Increase system file descriptor limit fs.file-max = 65535 # Allow for more PIDs (to reduce rollover problems); may break some programs 32768 kernel.pid_max = 65536 # Increase system IP port limits net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 2000 65000 # Increase TCP max buffer size setable using setsockopt() net.ipv4.tcp_rmem = 4096 87380 8388608 net.ipv4.tcp_wmem = 4096 87380 8388608 # Increase Linux auto tuning TCP buffer limits # min, default, and max number of bytes to use # set max to at least 4MB, or higher if you use very high BDP paths net.core.rmem_max = 8388608 net.core.wmem_max = 8388608 net.core.netdev_max_backlog = 5000 net.ipv4.tcp_window_scaling = 1
After making these changes you should reboot.
Setting up a chroot environment
We’ll be setting up a chroot environment to run our web server and applications in. Chroot’s provide isolation from the rest of the operating system, so even in the event of a application compromise, damage can be mitigated.
sudo apt-get install debootstrap dchroot
Now add this to your
/etc/schroot/schroot.conf file, precise is the release of Ubuntu I’m using, so change it if you need to:
[precise] description=Ubuntu Precise LTS location=/var/chroot priority=3 users=ubuntu groups=sbuild root-groups=root
Now bootstrap the chroot with a minimal Ubuntu installation:
sudo debootstrap --variant=buildd --arch amd64 precise /var/chroot/ http://mirror.anl.gov/pub/ubuntu/ sudo cp /etc/resolv.conf /var/chroot/etc/resolv.conf sudo mount -o bind /proc /var/chroot/proc sudo chroot /var/chroot/ apt-get install ubuntu-minimal apt-get update
Add the following to
/etc/apt/sources.list inside the chroot:
deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu precise main deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu precise-updates main deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu precise-security main deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu precise universe deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu precise-updates universe
Let’s test out our chroot and install nginx inside of it:
apt-get update apt-get install nginx
Securing nginx inside the chroot
First thing we will do is add a www user for nginx to run under:
sudo chroot /var/chroot useradd www -d /home/www mkdir /home/www chown -R www.www /home/www
/etc/nginx/nginx.conf and make sure you change user to www inside the chroot:
We can now start nginx inside the chroot:
sudo chroot /var/chroot service nginx start
Now if you go to http://your_vm_ip/ you should see “Welcome to nginx!” running inside your fancy new chroot.
We also need to setup ssh to run inside the chroot so we can deploy our applications more easily.
sudo chroot /var/chroot apt-get install openssh-server udev
Since we already have SSH for the main host running on 22, we’re going to run SSH for the chroot on port 2222. We’ll copy over our config from outside the chroot to the chroot.
sudo cp /etc/ssh/sshd_config /var/chroot/etc/ssh/sshd_config
Now open the config and change the bind port to 2222.
We also need to add the rules to our firewall script:
# Chroot ssh -A INPUT -p tcp -m state --state NEW --dport 2222 -j ACCEPT
Now make a startup script for chroot-precise in `/etc/init.d/chroot-precise:
mount -o bind /proc /var/chroot/proc mount -o bind /dev /var/chroot/dev mount -o bind /sys /var/chroot/sys mount -o bind /dev/pts /var/chroot/dev/pts chroot /var/chroot service nginx start chroot /var/chroot service ssh start
Set it to executable and to start at boot:
sudo chmod +x /etc/init.d/chroot-precise sudo update-rc.d chroot-precise defaults
Next is to put your public key inside the
.ssh/authorized_keys file for the www user inside the chroot so you can ssh and deploy your applications.
If you want, you can test your server and reboot it now to ensure nginx and ssh boot up properly. If it’s not running right now, you start it:
You should now be able to ssh into your chroot and main server without a password.
I would like to also mention the GRSecurity kernel patch. I had tried several times to install this (two different versions were released while I was writing this) and both make the kernel unable to compile. Hopefully they’ll fix these bugs and I’ll be able to update this article with notes on setting GRSecurity up as well.
I hope this article proved useful to anyone trying to secure a Ubuntu system, and if you liked it please share it!